Patient Care

brief introduction:
Ischemic Cerebrovascular Diseases
What is Ischemic cerebrovascular disease?
Ischemic cerebrovascular diseases include transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke. They are often caused by ischemic necrosis or localized softening of localized brain tissues due to obstructed blood supply, ischemia or hypoxia in the brain. There are many causes of ischemia and hypoxia, for example, fatty deposits called “plaques” accumulate in arteries, which makes the arteries narrowed, or emboli produced by a variety of diseases enter the blood and circulate to cerebral arteries to cause occlusion of vessels. Common ischemic cerebrovascular diseases include intracranial arterial stenosis and acute ischemic stroke.
  • Intracranial Arterial Stenosis:
    It is caused by the accumulation of plaques in arteries that deliver blood to the brain. Plaques are the deposition of cholesterol, fatty substances, cellular waste, calcium and fibrin along the vascular wall.
  • Acute Ischemic Stroke:
    It is caused by thrombotic occlusion of arteries, resulting in brain tissue dysfunction or death.

  • Cranial CT and MRI scans

  • Cerebrovascular DSA or MR examinations

  • Transcranial Doppler (TCD) examination

How to determine if someone has a stroke - FAST


Face - Whether the face is asymmetrical or drooping on one side



Arm - Whether there is weakness or numbness in one arm or both arms, and whether one of the arms droops down when trying to raise both arms



Speech - Whether there is language difficulty, and whether the voice sounds strange when speaking



Time - If any of the above is noted, call 120 immediately. The earlier the initiation of treatment, the better the chance for recovery.

Who is at risk of developing ischemic cerebrovascular disease

(1) Abnormal lipid metabolism: Abnormal lipid metabolism is a recognized risk factor for atherosclerosis and mainly refers to the elevation of total cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma, in which cholesterol plays a key role. The oxidative modification of LDL is a key initiating factor in the formation of atherosclerosis.

(2) Hypertension: Hypertension mainly causes and accelerates atherosclerosis by damaging the vascular endothelium.

(3) Diabetes (including abnormal glucose tolerance): Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. A high insulin level can stimulate the growth of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, while hyperglycemia and insulin resistance can damage endothelial cells.

(4) Smoking: Smoking (or exposure to smoke) can increase the expression of various adhesion molecules in the blood and cause platelet dysfunction, which in turn destroys vascular endothelial cells, induces smooth muscle cell proliferation, causes vasomotor dysfunction, and promotes the formation of atherosclerosis.

(5) Genetic factors: One or more family members suffering from cerebrovascular disease suggests that the patient has a higher risk of cerebral atherosclerosis.

(6) Age: The development of cerebral atherosclerosis shows a significant upward trend at > 45 years of age.

(7) Extensive drinking: Extensive drinking can promote platelet aggregation, affect fibrinogen activity, stimulate the blood coagulation process, and increase the oxidation of LDL by acetaldehyde. In addition, extensive drinking has an adverse effect on blood pressure.

(8) Obesity, obesity induced by poor dietary habits (people with a high BMI) and poor dietary habits (such as intake of high-calorie, high-fat foods including meat or fried food) are often accompanied by lipid metabolism disorders, thereby promoting the formation of atherosclerosis.

(9) Lack of regular aerobic exercises (which refers to aerobic exercises persistently performed three or more times per week, with a minimum of 30 minutes each time) can easily lead to atherosclerosis.

(10) High homocysteine: High homocysteine can directly cause damage to vascular endothelial cells and vascular dysfunction, thus promoting the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis.

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